The pervasive availability of the Internet, allied with the spread of increasingly powerful digital facilities, has led digital multimedia to be the primary source of visual information in many aspect of our society, including media, politics, national security and advertisement. However, the historical assumption that photographs can be trusted as a true representation of reality does not hold anymore. Nowadays, affordable and sophisticated graphics editing software allow for the creation of sophisticated and visually compelling photographic fakes, which easily puzzle our perception of reality. Trustworthiness of the information conveyed by digital media is becoming one of the key challenges for our information society, strongly affecting the success and penetration of future multimedia applications. The urgent need of efficient techniques to cope with security issues related with multimedia data motivates the MMLab research. Multimedia forensics techniques are particularly relevant as they deal with the recovery of information that can be directly used to authenticate and estimate the trustworthiness of digital multimedia contents.

 

Digital Tampering

tampering

Digital forensics is rapidly emerging as an effective solution to cope with multimedia security issues, developing powerful techniques to detect a wide-variety of tampering in ordinary images. The inspiring principle behind passive forensics techniques is that although most forms of tampering may not leave any obvious visual traces, they may disturb some inherent properties of the image. To the extent that these perturbations can be quantified and detected, they can be used to invalidate or authenticate a digital content. This technology is said to be passive, since it can operate where no prior information about the content is available or no integrity protection mechanisms (e.g. digital watermarking) have been previously applied.


Digital Source Identification

source

Source identification for digital content is one of the branches of digital image forensics, whose aim is to establish a link between an image and its acquisition device (e.g., camera, mobile phone, scanner), by exploiting traces left by the different steps taken during the image acquisition process. The basic assumption is that digital contents are overlaid by a characteristic noise-like pattern that represents a unique intrinsic fingerprint of the specific acquisition device. Such a noise is invisible to the human eye, but it can be analysed to successfully contribute to identification.

Computer Generated vs Natural Imagery

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Digital Counter-forensics

counter

Counter-forensics (or anti-forensics) is a brand new research field in digital forensic science, which aims at identifying weaknesses in existing forensic techniques so to find a way to fool them. The basic assumption is that forensic techniques can be deceived whenever the forger is aware of the forensic tools and adopts specific countermeasures, namely counter-forensic attacks. Such kind of attacks are usually targeted to a single or a class of forensic tools and try to conceal the traces of a specific manipulation.


Digital Watermarking

watermarking

Digital watermarking is referred to as the procedure of embedding some information (watermark) into digital multimedia content (image, video or audio), possibly in an imperceptible way not to degrade the quality of the content. Such embedded information can be extracted or detected at any later stage for different purposes, including ownership proof, copyright protection, access control and tamper detection. This technology is said to be active, since it requires a known information to be embedded onto the content at the time of recording ( or a person to embed it at the time of sending).

2015

Dang-Nguyen Duc-Tien; Boato, Giulia; De Natale Francesco

3D-Model-Based Video Analysis for Computer Generated Faces Identification Journal Article

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, 2015.

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Pasquini Cecilia; Brunetta, Carlo; Vinci Andrea Conotter Valentina; Boato Giulia F ;

Towards the verification of image integrity in online news Conference

IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo Workshops, 2015.

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Dang-Nguyen, Duc-Tien; Pasquini, Cecilia; Conotter, Valentina; Boato, Giulia

RAISE - A Raw Images Dataset for Digital Image Forensics Inproceedings

ACM Multimedia Systems conference (to appear), 2015.

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2014

Duc Tien, Dang Nguyen ; Conotter, Valentina ; Boato, Giulia ; De Natale, Francesco GB

Video forensics based on expression dynamics Inproceedings

IEEE Workshop on Information Forensics and Security, 2014.

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Pasquini, Cecilia; Boato, Giulia; Pérez-González, Fernando

Multiple JPEG compression detection by means of Benford Fourier coefficients Inproceedings

IEEE Workshop on Information Forensics and Security, pp. 1706-1711, 2014.

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Conotter, Valentina; Dang-Nguyen, Duc-Tien; Riegler, Michael; Boato, Giulia; Larson, Martha

A Crowdsourced Data Set of Edited Images Online Inproceedings

International ACM Workshop on Crowdsourcing for Multimedia, 2014.

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Pasquini, Cecilia; Pérez-González, Fernando; Boato, Giulia

A Benford-Fourier JPEG compression detector Inproceedings

IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, pp. 5322-5326, 2014.

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Conotter, Valentina; Bodnari, Ecaterina; Boato, Giulia; Farid, Hany

Physiologically-based detection of computer generated faces in video Inproceedings

IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 2014.

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Pasquini, Cecilia; Comesaña, Pedro; Pérez-González, Fernando; Boato, Giulia

Transportation-theoretic image counterforensics to first significant digit histogram forensics Inproceedings

IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, pp. 2699-2703, 2014.

BibTeX

Conotter, Valentina; Dang-Nguyen, Duc-Tien; Menéndez, María; Boato, Giulia; Larson, Martha

Assessing the Impact of Image Manipulation and Image Context on Users' Perceptions of Deception Inproceedings

IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, pp. Accepted, 2014.

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2013

Pasquini, Cecilia; Boato, Giulia

JPEG compression anti-forensics based of First Significant Digit distribution Inproceedings

IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, pp. 500-505, 2013.

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Dang-Nguyen, Duc-Tien ; Gebru, Israel Dejene ; Conotter, Valentina ; Boato, Giulia ; De Natale, Francesco G B

Counter-forensics of median filtering Inproceedings

IEEE International Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, pp. 260–265, 2013.

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Conotter, Valentina; Comesaña, Pedro; Pérez-González, Fernando

Forensic analysis of full-frame linearly filtered JPEG images Inproceedings

International Coriference on Image Processing (ICIP), 2013.

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Valentina, Conotter; Pedro, Comesaña; Fernando., Pérez-González

Joint detection of full-frame linear filtering and JPEG compression in digital images Inproceedings

Information Forensics and Security (WIFS), 2013 IEEE International Workshop on, pp. 156–161, IEEE 2013.

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Meneghetti, A; Boato, G; De Natale, FGB

Improved image copyright protection scheme exploiting visual cryptography in wavelet domain Inproceedings

IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, pp. 865504–865504, International Society for Optics and Photonics 2013.

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2012

Dang-Nguyen, Duc-Tien ; Boato, Giulia ; De Natale, Francesco G B

Discrimination Between Computer Generated and Natural Human Faces Based on Asymmetry Information Inproceedings

EURASIP European Signal Processing Conference, pp. 1234–1238, 2012.

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Dang-Nguyen, Duc-Tien ; Boato, Giulia ; De Natale, Francesco G B

Identify computer generated characters by analysing facial expressions variation Inproceedings

IEEE International Workshop on Information Forensics and Security, pp. 252–257 BEST PAPER AWARD, 2012.

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Conotter, Valentina ; O'Brien, James ; Farid, Hany

Exposing digital forgeries in ballistic motion Journal Article

Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on, 7 (1), pp. 283–296, 2012.

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Muratov, Oleg ; Dang-Nguyen, Duc-Tien ; Boato, Giulia ; De Natale, Francesco G B

Saliency detection as a support for image forensics Inproceedings

IEEE International Symposium on Communications Control and Signal Processing, pp. 1–5, 2012.

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Boato, Giulia ; Carli, Marco ; Battisti, Federica ; Azzoni, Marco ; Egiazarian, Karen

Difference expansion and prediction for high bit-rate reversible data hiding Journal Article

Journal of Electronic Imaging, 21 (3), pp. 033013–1, 2012.

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2011

Conotter, Valentina

Active and passive multimedia forensics PhD Thesis

University of Trento, 2011.

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Valentina, Conotter; Lorenzo, Cordin

Detecting photographic and computer generated composites Inproceedings

IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, pp. 78700A–78700A, International Society for Optics and Photonics 2011.

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Valentina, Conotter; Giulia, Boato

Analysis of sensor fingerprint for source camera identification Journal Article

Electronics letters, 47 (25), pp. 1366–1367, 2011.

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Cancellaro, Michela ; Battisti, Federica ; Carli, Marco ; Boato, Giulia ; De Natale, Francesco GB ; Neri, Alessandro

A commutative digital image watermarking and encryption method in the tree structured Haar transform domain Journal Article

Signal Processing: Image Communication, 26 (1), pp. 1–12, 2011.

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Battisti, Federica ; Carli, Marco ; Neri, Alessandro ; Boato, Giulia

Catch the mark: Teaching data hiding by gaming Inproceedings

EUROCON-International Conference on Computer as a Tool (EUROCON), 2011 IEEE, pp. 1–4, IEEE 2011.

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Andrea, Cortiana; Valentina, Conotter; Giulia, Boato; GB, De Natale Francesco

Performance comparison of denoising filters for source camera identification Inproceedings

IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, pp. 788007–788007, International Society for Optics and Photonics 2011.

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Battisti, Federica ; Boato, Giulia ; Carli, Marco ; Neri, Alessandro

Teaching Multimedia Data Protection Through an International Online Competition Journal Article

Education, IEEE Transactions on, 54 (3), pp. 381–386, 2011.

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2010

Conotter, Valentina ; Boato, Giulia ; Farid, Hany

Detecting photo manipulation on signs and billboards Inproceedings

Image Processing (ICIP), 2010 17th IEEE International Conference on, pp. 1741–1744, IEEE 2010.

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Boato, G; Carli, M; Molteni, D; Rota, P

Exploiting DCT masking effect to improve the perceptual quality of data hiding Inproceedings

IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, pp. 75320F–75320F, International Society for Optics and Photonics 2010.

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Boato, G; De Natale, FGB ; Zontone, P

How digital forensics may help assessing the perceptual impact of image formation and manipulation Journal Article

Proc. Fifth Int. Workshop on Video Processing and Quality Metrics for Consumer Electronics--VPQM, 2010 , 2010.

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Conotter, Valentina ; Boato, Giulia ; Carli, Marco ; Egiazarian, Karen

Near lossless reversible data hiding based on adaptive prediction. Inproceedings

ICIP, pp. 2585–2588, 2010.

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Azzoni, M; Boato, G; Carli, M; Egiazarian, K

Reversible watermarking using prediction and difference expansion Inproceedings

Visual Information Processing (EUVIP), 2010 2nd European Workshop on, pp. 71–76, IEEE 2010.

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Muzzarelli, Michele ; Carli, Marco ; Boato, Giulia ; Egiazarian, Karen

Reversible watermarking via histogram shifting and least square optimization Inproceedings

Proceedings of the 12th ACM workshop on Multimedia and security, pp. 147–152, ACM 2010.

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2009

Boato, Giulia ; Conotter, Valentina ; De Natale, Francesco GB ; Fontanari, Claudio

Watermarking robustness evaluation based on perceptual quality via genetic algorithms Journal Article

Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on, 4 (2), pp. 207–216, 2009.

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Conotter, Valentina ; Boato, Giulia ; Fontanari, Claudio ; De Natale, Francesco GB

Robustness and security assessment of image watermarking techniques by a stochastic approach Inproceedings

IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, pp. 72450Z–72450Z, International Society for Optics and Photonics 2009.

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Federica, Battisti ; Michela, Cancellaro ; Giulia, Boato ; Marco, Carli ; Alessandro, Neri

Joint Watermarking and Encryption of Color Images in the Fibonacci-Haar Domain Journal Article

EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, 2009 , 2009.

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Conotter, Valentina ; Boato, Giulia ; Carli, Marco ; Egiazarian, Karen

High capacity reversible data hiding based on histogram shifting and non-local means Inproceedings

Local and Non-Local Approximation in Image Processing, 2009. LNLA 2009. International Workshop on, pp. 130–136, IEEE 2009.

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Conci, N; Carli, M; Boato, G

Data hiding tools for multiple description video coding Journal Article

Electronics Letters, 45 (2), pp. 98–99, 2009.

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Conotter, Valentina ; Boato, Giulia ; Fontanari, Claudio ; De Natale, Francesco GB

Comparison of watermarking algorithms via a GA-based benchmarking tool Inproceedings

Image Processing (ICIP), 2009 16th IEEE International Conference on, pp. 4229–4232, IEEE 2009.

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Conci, N; Lizzi, L

Camera placement using particle swarm optimization in visual surveillance applications Inproceedings

Image Processing (ICIP), 2009 16th IEEE International Conference on, pp. 3485–3488, IEEE 2009.

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2008

Boato, Giulia ; Conotter, Valentina ; De Natale, Francesco GB ; Fontanari, Claudio

A joint asymmetric watermarking and image encryption scheme Inproceedings

Electronic Imaging 2008, pp. 68191A–68191A, International Society for Optics and Photonics 2008.

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